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郑州托福培训之托福写作如何具体规划每一个段落?

发布人:环美出国    发布时间:2017-04-14

  托福写作备考的构思主要是指规划文章的整体框架结构,也就是我们通常说的写提纲。写提纲是为了帮助大家确定并理清自己的思维,在写中间段的时候有话可说,保证充实具体。由于考场上时间有限,考生必须在平时练就快速构思的托福写作技巧,以便到考场上能迅速调动自己思维,规划文章结构。 通常情况下,推荐五段三点式文章结构。即Introduction一段,Body三段,和Conclusion一段。一般第一段会用2-4句话陈述自己的观点,大约60字左右。第2到4段从三个方面论述自己的观点,每段约100字。结尾段用1-3句话总结自己的观点,大约40个字。那么如何具体规划每一个段落呢?

  开头段开头段主要用以下几种方法来组织,即背景法(Background),争议法(Controversy),提问法(Question),故事法(Story)和引言法(Quotation)。以背景法为例。背景法一般会提出一种普遍的或值得关注的现象作为背景或者是由远到近,由大到小地谈论紧扣论题的社会观点作为背景。背景法开头段的结构通常如下:

  背景(1-3句)+论题+反方观点+(反方理由)+过度+(正方观点)+作者的观点+作者的理由

  例:Technology makes people's lives more complicated. 题目涉及到了现今社会比较热门的话题——科技。 这样,我们就可以以这种社会比较关注的现象作为我们作文的开头背景。因此这个题目的首段就可以这样开始:Technology has had tremendous impacts on every aspect of modern life. However, people are having conflicting opinions about whether it has made people's lives more complicated or not. I believe technology has by and large made our lives more convenient.

  第一句话就是一句紧贴社会的背景,这样写不但很容易打开考生自己的思路,抓住作文的焦点,还能引起考官的共鸣。中间段落的文章结构通常如下:Transitional words+topic sentence+development.如果考生在平时能熟练运用这样的一个结构来展开作文,那么考场上就会凭借这份思维定势来帮助自己抓住每一分。

  中间三个段落都可以套用这种模式。Transitional words主要有以下三种,即表顺序:firstly, secondly, finally(last but not least);表并列:besides, in addition;表对比:in contrast, in comparison.这些衔接词会让文章看起来脉络清晰,组织严密,也就做到了评分标准中的“well-organized”一条。

  主题句,顾名思义,向考官展示的是考生作文的主要意旨所以它在中间段落中的作用是至关重要的。通常主题句应该注意一下几点:

  1.主题句必须是陈述句。有的考生想在写作中创新,于是采用反问句或者其他看似多样化的题目,然而这种多样性带来的后果是给考官观点不明确的印象,很自然地会影响到分数。

  2.必须表明观点。如果考生把一句无关痛痒的话放在主题句的位置上,很显然无法表明自身观点。比如像“今天是晴天”这样的话没有表明观点;然而“今天是个好天气”就包含一种感情色彩在里面,给人一种立场明确的感觉。考生应该切记:没有反驳余地的就不可以作为主题句。

  3.态度必须坚决,但是不能极端。

  4.每段必须有主题句。理论上讲没有主题句是可以的,但是考场上不可以,没有主题就会浪费考官的时间去帮你总结主题,然而繁忙的考官是不会那么善良地去分析你的题目来抓取你的观点的

  下面我们再详细说说写作句型的表达

  一、 准确的句子表达

  1. 句型分析

  英语的句型包括以下几种,简单句、复合句、并列句、并列复合句等。在托福写作中,一般使用复合句,辅以并列句和并列复合句,当然肯定要有简单句,做到长短句相结合。摘几个句子给大家认识并分析一下复合句和并列复合句。

  a. Even though I usually know what I have to say, I cannot always express myself correctly in English. 这句话是一个复合句,由even though引导的让步状语从句。

  b. This challenges me to practice my spoken English, with the result that I can complete the speaking tasks more fluently and quickly. 这句话中是一个复合句。with介词结构中,有一个that引导的同位语从句对result进行解释说明。

  c. I think this is less than ideal because any differences in opinion become personal conflicts, and therefore that might jeopardize the employee’s job. 这句话是一个并列复杂句。and 连接了两个句子,是一个并列句;because引导的原因状语从句。

  d. Shallow writing is indicative of weak critical-thinking skills, and such writing, which is often described as “sophomoric”, receives low mark. 这句话同样是并列复杂句。由and连接两个句子,成为并列句,再一个which引导的定语从句。

  2.托福写作中的句子容易出现三个问题:一是使用破碎句,二是使用接连句,三是句子连接不正确。

  1). 破碎句

  所谓破碎句,就是句子不完整,通常是没有谓语(或者说谓语是动词的非谓语形式,如分词),或者是从句单独成句。

  破碎句:She singing alone. (无谓语,singing是现在分词)

  正确句:She is singing alone.

  破碎句:He did not come. Because he was sick. (从句单独成句)

  正确句:He did not come because he was sick.

  2).接连句

  接连句,就是两个句子直接连在一起,既未使用连词,也未使用正确的标点符号。

  接连句: Professionals such as lawyers or accountants usually work longer hours than factory workers they have greater freedom in planning their time.

  正确句一: Professionals such as lawyers or accountants usually work longer hours than factory workers. However, they have greater freedom in planning their time.

  正确句二: Professionals such as lawyers or accountants usually work longer hours than factory workers; however, they have greater freedom in planning their time.

  3).句子连接不正确

  句子连接不正确,就是两个独立的句子之间以逗号连接,这是不合英语语法的。正确的做法是以连词、分号、冒号、句号等连接两个句子。

  不正确句: Breaking chalk into two pieces is a physical change, there is no change in the composition of the chalk.

  正确句: Breaking chalk into two pieces is a physical change, so there is no change in the composition of the chalk.

  二、高分表达

  除了在句式上长短句相结合准确表达外,建议大家要使用一些特殊的句式,以使句型多样化。句型多样化也是作文得到高分的条件之一。除了我们之前经常提到的高分句式,如倒装句、强调句、状语前置、插入语等,还可以用主语多样化。下面举几个句子概括介绍前面四种句型,重点分析主语多样化。

  正常句: Luck only works in extreme cases.

  倒装句: Only in extreme cases does luck work.

  正常句: The internet provides people access to the latest information.

  强调句: It is the internet that provides people access to the latest information. (强调the internet)

  正常句: The environment has been deteriorating severely along with the development of industry.

  状语前置句: Along with the accelerating development of industry, the environment has been deteriorating severely.

  正常句: However, new zoos try to duplicate animals’ natural habitats as much as possible and give animals a comfortable amount of space.

  插入语: New zoos, however, try to duplicate animals’ natural habitats as much as possible and give animals a comfortable amount of space. (连词however做插入语)

  主语多样

  1. 她突然想到了一个主意。

  She suddenly had an idea.

  通常情况下,考生会马上对这句话进行翻译,基本不会动句子结构。但是以人作为主语的英语句子总是不能够很吸引人,所以这个句子如果稍微做下修改,以后面的宾语“主意”做主语,这个句子会发生一些变化。

  2. 他开车心不在焉,几乎闯祸。

  He was absent-minded when driving, and almost caused an accident.

  这句话依然是拿人做主语,稍微改一下,把心不在焉这个形容词的名词形式做主语,会大不相同。

  His absence of mind during driving nearly caused an accident.

  3. 美利坚合众国创立于1789年。

  The United States of America was founded in 1789.

  这句话没有任何错误,但是不够多样,可以用时间作主语。

  The year 1789 witnessed the founding of the United States of America.

  三、实用句型

  最后,为大家列举几个考试中可以使用的套用句型,为一些写句子摸不着头绪的考生提供帮助。

  1. It pays to make great efforts to prepare for TOEFL

  努力准备新托福考试是值得的。

  2. Nothing is more important than to receive education.

  没有比接受教育更重要的了。

  3. The reason why the white-collars suffer increasing work-related stress is that they pursue work achievement in career.

  白领压力日益增加的原因是他们在事业上有所追求。

  4. It is time the related department took proper measures.

  (虚拟句式)相关部门早该采取适当的措施了
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