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郑州托福培训:新托福独立写作如何构思布局

发布人:环美出国    发布时间:2017-04-18

  托福独立写作要求考生针对某个问题提出自己的观点,并在30分钟的时间内写出一篇短文。很多考生在写作时感到困惑,不知道如何构思文章。下面环美出国留学语言培训学校通过具体的例题教给大家如何构思托福独立写作的方法。

  一、审题的“精确性”

  根据对过去几年独立写作考题的分析,发现有90%以上的题目属于“支持/反对”型。

  例:

  Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?

  Because the change of the society is so rapidly, people are less happy or less satisfied with their life than people did in the past time.

  而剩下的则是由“对比论述型”构成的。

  例:

  Some people think children should spend most of their time in studying and playing while others think they should help their parents with the household chores. What’s your opinion?

  在审题时,考生必须首先把题目通读1-3遍,彻底把握题目主旨后,再进行段落布局。在这里,结合自己的经验给大家一些建议:首先,判断题目是否包含“绝对”含义的词,若有,则按照上篇讲过的建议布局,若没有,则对于同意或者反对的理由进行快速的brain storming, 然后根据分论点的数量及论点的可延展性来敲定立场:

  Some people think that human needs for farmland, housing, and industry are more important than saving land for endangered animals. Do you agree or disagree with this point of view? Why or why not? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

  Disagree:

  1) Endangered animals are valuable because of their limited quantities

  2) Environment balance

  3) Endangered animals sometimes stand for the country, so they are more valuable than farmlands

  Agree:

  1) life quality is the top priority

  2) endangered animals can be raised in the zoos

  经过一番考量,假如考生得出了上述的一些分论点及想法,这时候,主体段的布局基本就可以敲定大方向了。第一种就是完全反对题目的说法,采用五段式结构布局,每个主体段论证上述三个分论点中的一个;第二种也是反对题目的说法,采用五段式结构布局,但是前2个主体段从三个分论点中选二个去论证,而第三个主体段从“同意”的二个分论点里去选一个,最后的结论还是倾向于反对的。

  第三种是采用四段式结构布局,即第一个主体段从三个反对意见中选择二到三个分论点去写,而第二个主体段则从赞同的分论点里去选择,数量上比前一段少一个即可,最后结论还是倾向于反对多一点。这样说是不是有些同学看了会有点“晕”呢?那下面再举个简单点的例子:

  Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Television, newspapers, magazines, and other media pay too much attention to the personal lives of famous people such as public figures and celebrities. Use specific reasons and details to explain your opinion.

  Disagree:

  1) Most people are common, so they want to know something about famous ones

  2) Famous people stand for some fashion

  3) Constrain the public figures

  4) Celebrities can improve the national cohesion and unity

  又经过了几分钟思考,我们得出了上述的四个分论点,但是一时半会赞同的理由实在是想不出。若考试的时候遇到这种情况,千万别犹豫不决,马上从已经想好的观点里面进行挑选。于是,这个题目我们就采用完全反对的立场,以五段式结构布局全文,主体段的分论点从上述四点中挑选三个展开论述即可。这样一来,大家是不是明白一点了呢?

  Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Parents or other adult relatives should make important decisions for their older (15 to 18 year-old) teenage children. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.

  Agree:

  Parents make decision for children.

  1) Parents have more experience

  2) 15-18 years old children are not adults, so they can't take responsibility

  还有一种情况就是我们只能想出两个分论点,这时候考生应该果断采用四段式布局,而这一次,两个主体段都分别论述一个同意的理由,而在结尾时,可以顺便提一些反对的理由,这样也不失为一种灵活的方法,希望考生们可以借鉴。

 二、分论点的排列原则

  提醒大家,在布局的时候我们不是随意编排分论点的先后顺序,而是需要有一定的逻辑性和合理性。一般说来,五段式的三个主体段,若都是同意或者都是反对的理由的话,一般这些分论点有两种逻辑顺序,即第一种按照“重要性”来排,将你认为最主要的理由放在第一个主体段中详细论证;第二种是按照“小到大”的原则,即个人方面的理由先写,然后再是家庭,公司,最后再是社会,国家等。

  倘若所有的论点都是在一个范围内的,比如都是属于个人的论点,则这个时候要看这些分论点后续的论证内容的多少,比如某一个分论点你既举得出例子,又可以进行对比或者因果论述的话那肯定应该先写这个分论点,若某一个分论点后续能够阐述的理由只有一句话的时候那就应该果断地将其排在后面写。若文章是四段式的结构,则在一个主体段中的排列顺序和前面讲的原则是一致的。
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